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Non-ALS patients reported no history of familial ALS and clinical evaluation failed to show any signs of ALS. Both procedures were performed in the Surgical Center of Functional Neurosurgery of Clinics Hospital of University of São Paulo in accordance with protocol number 0187/11 approved by the Ethics Committee for Analysis of Research Projects of Clinics Hospital of University of São Paulo School of Medicine. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkn923 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Ilzecka, J. Serum caspase-9 levels are increased in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In this study, hi PSC-derived motor neurons were obtained from sporadic ALS patients by reprogramming motor nerve-derived fibroblasts using a STEMCCA Cre-Excisable Constitutive Polycistronic Lentivirus System containing the four transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and CMYC (Somers et al., 2010). doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.20 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Jessell, T.
DAVID analyses of differentially expressed genes identified molecular function and biological process-related genes through Gene Ontology.
REVIGO highlighted the related functions m RNA and DNA binding, GTP binding, transcription (co)-repressor activity, lipoprotein receptor binding, synapse organization, intracellular transport, mitotic cell cycle and cell death. Live imaging of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathogenesis: disease onset is characterized by marked induction of GFAP in Schwann cells. doi: 10.1002/glia.20836 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Kihira, T., Suzuki, A., Kubo, T., Miwa, H., and Kondo, T. Expression of insulin-like growth factor-II and leukemia inhibitory factor antibody immunostaining on the ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1-positive microglias in the spinal cord of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1789.2007.00776.x Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Kim, E.
Patients were submitted to surgical procedures in one of their feet by means of local anesthesia to collect a fragment of their extensor hallucis brevis nerve which is a motor nerve that innervates the extensor hallucis brevis muscle in the dorsal region of the foot.
As control, biopsies were taken from the distal accessory nerve performed during reconstructive surgery of traumatic brachial plexus injuries of non-ALS patients at the Clinics Hospital of University of São Paulo School of Medicine. doi: 10.1007/s10072-011-0837-4 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Imbeault, E., Mahvelati, T.
Sporadic ALS patients showed preserved movements of the ankle and big toe in the foot corresponding to the site of biopsy.