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It is therefore plausible that partial selfing is maintained within experimental populations via sexual conflict.In fact, mating with males is known to have harmful effects on the longevity of hermaphrodites .
A shift in reproductive schedule towards earlier reproduction would be indicative of adaptation in our imposed life-cycle, while longevity is expected to evolve as a response to the harm that males impinge on hermaphrodites upon mating.
To determine adaptation in the absence of constraints in sex allocation, we also characterized the life history of females that reproduced during experimental evolution through obligate mating with males.
In contrast to theoretical expectations, many natural populations of plants and animals exhibit mixed reproductive systems with partial selfing , and thereby add an additional layer of complexity to the population genetic dynamics.
In plants, for example, the balance between reproduction via selfing and pollen export for outcrossing can be influenced by flower morphology, relative flower position within the individual, and pollinator availability .
Here, we aim to determine whether the evolution of a sexual conflict or the evolution of sex allocation can explain the maintenance of the 50% outcrossing rate observed during the 100 generations of experimental evolution in male-hermaphrodite androdioecious populations with standing genetic diversity, as reported in .